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Product Name: Amantadine

Generics: Amantadine

Common Brand Names: Symadine; Symmetrel; Amantadin

Pharmaceutical Category: Antivirals

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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient amantadine:

Pharmacological action

Amantadine is an antiparkinsonian and antiviral drug, a tricyclic symmetric adamantanamin.
This medication blocks glutamate NMDA-receptors, thus reducing the excessive stimulatory effect of cortical glutamate neurons in the neostriatum that develops against the backdrop of lack of dopamine. Amantadine inhibits NMDA-receptors in the neurons of the substantia nigra reduces the intake of these Ca2+, which reduces the possibility of destruction of these neurons. In a greater Amantadine influences on stiffness (rigidity and bradykinesia).
This medicine inhibits the penetration of influenza A virus into the cell.

Pharmacokinetics

Amantadine after oral administration is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax plasma levels achieved after 5 hours. This medication excreted in urine. T1/2 of amantadine sulfate is 12-13 hours, in contrast to amantadine hydrochloride, which T1/2 is 30 hours.

Why is Amantadine prescribed?

Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome (rigidity, tremor, hypokinesia).
Neuralgia in Herpes Zoster, caused by the virus Varicella Zoster.
Prevention (including in combination with vaccination) and treatment of influenza A.

Dosage and administration

For oral administration the single dose is 100-200 mg.
IV in the form of infusion in 200 mg during 3 hours.
The frequency and duration of Amantadine use depends on the evidence, the patient's response to treatment, the epidemiological situation.
The maximum dose for oral administration is 600 mg / day.

Amantadine side effects, adverse reactions

CNS: headaches, depression, visual hallucinations, motor or mental excitement, convulsions, irritability, dizziness, sleep disturbances, tremors, mental disorders are accompanied by visual hallucinations, reduced visual acuity.
Cardiovascular system: the development or exacerbation of heart failure, orthostatic hypotension; rarely - arrhythmia, tachycardia.
Digestive system: rarely - anorexia, nausea, constipation, dry mouth.
Urinary system: patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia - difficulty urinating; polyuria, nocturia.
Dermatological reactions: dermatitis, the appearance of a bluish color of the skin of the upper and lower extremities (livedo reticularis).

Amantadine contraindications

Hepatic failure, chronic renal failure, psychosis (including history), hyperthyroidism, epilepsy, angle-closure glaucoma, prostatic hyperplasia, hypotension, congestive heart failure stage II-III, excited, preddeliry, delirious psychosis, I trimester of pregnancy, lactation, concomitant use of triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide, increased sensitivity to amantadine.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

The use of Amantadine in pregnancy is possible only under strict indications and under the supervision of a physician.
If necessary to use during lactation it been should decide on the termination of breastfeeding.
Category of the fetus by FDA - C.

Special instructions

Use Amantadine with caution in patients with impaired renal function, while taking other antiparkinsonian drugs, as well as in the elderly. In such cases a correction of the dosage of amantadine is needed. Patients with hyperreflexia the cancellation of treatment should be gradual.
An information about the effectiveness of amantadine to reduce extrapyramidal disorders during treatment with antipsychotic drugs (Parkinson's drug) are contradictory.
During treatment avoid drinking alcohol.
In the period of treatment you should not engage in activities that require high concentration and rapid psychomotor reactions.

Amantadine drug interactions

When this drug applied simultaneously with:
- may increase the side effects of other antiparkinsonian medications.
- thiazide diuretics can not been excluded the possibility of toxic effects of amantadine (ataxia, agitation, hallucinations), probably by reducing its renal clearance.
- quinine, quinidine may decrease the excretion of amantadine in urine.
There was described a case of acute confusion in elderly patients while this medication was simultaneously used with co-trimoxazole.

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