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Product Name: Codeine

Generics: Codeine

Common Brand Names: N / A

Pharmaceutical Category: Pain Relief / Muscle Relaxants

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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient codeine:

Pharmacological action

Codeine is a antitussive medication of central action of opium alkaloid phenanthrene series. This medicine is opioid receptor agonist. According to the properties similar to morphine, but the analgesic effect is considerably weaker. This drug reduces the excitability of the cough center by stimulating the opioid receptors in neurons. To a lesser extent than morphine depresses the respiratory center. To a lesser extent inhibits intestinal peristalsis, but prolonged use can cause constipation. Myosis is weakly expressed if codeine used in therapeutic doses.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration codeine and its salts are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax in plasma is reached after 1 h. This medication metabolized in the liver by O- and N-demethylation into morphine, norcodeine and other metabolites including normorphine and hydrocodone. Codeine and its metabolites are excreted almost entirely by the kidneys, mainly as conjugates with glucuronic acid.
T1/2 is 3-4 h after oral or IM administration.

Why is Codeine prescribed?

This medication is used to reduce or eliminate cough in bronchial and lung diseases (including with pneumonia, bronchitis, emphysema).
Pain syndrome in trauma, oncology, renal and hepatic colic, paroxysmal nonproductive cough, and diarrhea.

Dosage and administration

The dosage regimen is individual, depending on the age and the applied formulation.

Codeine side effects, adverse reactions

Digestive system: rarely - nausea, vomiting, and constipation.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: headache, drowsiness, when used in high doses or in sensitive patients may worsen the coordination of movements of the eyeballs with impaired vision, develop respiratory depression; rarely - increased tone of smooth muscles (at doses above 60 mg).
Allergic reactions: rarely - itching, rash on the type of urticaria.
Other: weight gain.

Codeine contraindications

Pulmonary insufficiency, acute attack of asthma, hypersensitivity to codeine. Do not use in children under 1 year.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Codeine is not recommended for use in the I trimester of pregnancy, before birth or at risk of miscarriage, in lactation period.

Special instructions

In patients with impaired renal excretion of codeine slowed, so it is recommended to lengthen the intervals between doses of the drug.
With prolonged use it may been developed drug dependence.

Codeine drug interactions

When this drug applied simultaneously with:
- drugs have a depressing effect on the central nervous system (including those with opioid analgesics, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, clonidine) it is possible an increase the action of codeine.
- derivatives of morphine it may increased the inhibitory action on the respiratory center; ibuprofen - analgesic effect is enhanced; carbamazepine - it may increased the analgesic effect is apparently due to increased formation of codeine metabolite normorphine, which has a stronger effect.
- quinidine the analgesic effect of codeine decreased or almost disappeared.
- codeine increases the effect of ethanol on psychomotor function.

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