Product Name: Piracetam
Common Brand Names: Nootropil
Pharmaceutical Category: Pain Relief / Muscle Relaxants
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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient piracetam:
Piracetam is a nootropic drugs. This medication has a positive effect on metabolism and blood circulation of the brain. It increases glucose utilization, improves the course of metabolic processes, improves microcirculation in the ischemic areas, and inhibits the aggregation of activated platelets. Piracetam has a protective effect for brain damage caused by hypoxia, intoxication, an electric shock. This drug improves the integrative activity of the brain. Piracetam does not have a sedative and stimulating effect.
Piracetam after oral administration is quickly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax in plasma is reached after about 30 minutes, in the cerebrospinal fluid in 2-8 hours. The apparent Vd is 0.6 L / kg. Piracetam does not bind to plasma proteins.
This medication distributed in all organs and tissues, crosses the blood-brain barrier and placental barrier. Piracetam selectively accumulates in the tissues of the cerebral cortex, predominantly in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, the cerebellum and basal ganglia.
T1/2 from plasma is 4-5 hours, from cerebrospinal fluid is 6-8 hours. This drug excreted by the kidneys unchanged. In renal insufficiency T1/2 is increases.
Why is Piracetam prescribed?
Memory disturbances, dizziness, decreased concentration, emotional lability, dementia due to cerebrovascular events (ischemic stroke), brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, in old age; comatose state of vascular, traumatic or toxic origin; treatment withdrawal and psychoorganic syndrome in chronic alcoholism; learning disorders in children not related to inadequate training or the peculiarities of family environment (as part of combination therapy); sickle cell anemia (as part of combination therapy).
Dosage and administration
Oral for adults 30-160 mg / kg in 2-4 doses. Duration of treatment is 6-8 weeks.
If necessary, Piracetam use IM or IV at an initial dose of 10 g / day. At IV administration to patients in critical condition daily dose may reach 12 g. After clinical improvement the dose is gradually reduced and transferred to an oral administration.
For children the oral dose is 30-50 mg / kg in 2-3 doses. The treatment should be continued for at least 3 weeks.
Piracetam side effects
Digestive system: rarely - dyspeptic symptoms, abdominal pain.
CNS: rarely - nervousness, agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, headache, tremor, in some cases - weakness, drowsiness.
Other: increased sexual activity.
Hemorrhagic stroke, severe renal impairment (with CC < 20 ml / min), hypersensitivity to piracetam.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Adequate and well-controlled studies safety of piracetam during pregnancy has not been carried out. Piracetam use is possible only in cases where the intended benefits to the mother outweigh the risks to the fetus.
Piracetam apparently passes into breast milk. If necessary use during lactation should solve the issue of termination of breastfeeding.
In experimental studies in animals it was showed no adverse effects of piracetam on the fetus.
Piracetam use with careful in patients with severe hemostasis disorders, surgery for large and heavy bleeding; with renal insufficiency.
It is recommended constant monitoring of indicators of kidney function.
In the case of sleep disorders is recommended to cancel an evening reception of Piracetam, attaching the dose to day reception.
Piracetam drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Piracetam with:
drugs of thyroid hormone may develop central effects - tremors, restlessness, irritability, sleep disturbance, confusion;
CNS stimulants may increase stimulating effect;
neuroleptics observed increased extrapyramidal disorders.
There was described a case of the interaction of piracetam while using with an extract of thyroid gland containing triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine when the patient had marked anxiety, irritability and sleep disorders.
Piracetam in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: amplification of possible side effects.
Treatment: gastric lavage, activated charcoal, symptomatic therapy, hemodialysis is possible (efficiency 50-60%); there is no specific antidote.