Product Name: Zopiclone
Common Brand Names: Imovane; Somnosan; Ximovan; Zimovane
Pharmaceutical Category: Sleep Aid
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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient zopiclone:
Zopiclone is a sleeping drug from group of cyclopyrrolone derivatives. This drug is "non benzodiazepine" agonist of benzodiazepine receptors. Zopiclone also has sedative, anxiolytic, muscle-relaxing center, anticonvulsant and amnesic properties. Like a derivative of benzodiazepine zopiclone enhances GABA-ergic processes in the brain, interacting with the benzodiazepine receptors, as a result of the increased sensitivity of GABA-receptors to the neurotransmitter. However, zopiclone apparently interacts with other parts of the benzodiazepine receptor than benzodiazepines.
Zopiclone reduced sleep time, reduces the number of nighttime awakenings, increases total sleep time. This medication almost has no effect on sleep structure, does not reduce significantly the amount of REM sleep. Consequences of the phenomenon of waking up are missing or expressed little. Readmission zopiclone are not accompanied by cumulation.
Zopiclone rapidly and completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax achieved within 1-3 hours. Zopiclone easily passes through gistogematicheskie barriers including the BBB and it is distributed in organs and tissues including brain. T1/2 is 5.5-6 hours, not accumulates.
Why is Zopiclone prescribed?
Sleep disturbance (difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakening, early awakening), transient, situational or chronic insomnia; sleep disturbances in mental disorders, bronchial asthma with nocturnal seizures (in combination with single dose daily dose of theophylline).
Dosage and administration
The average therapeutic dose of Zopiclone is 7.5 mg orally at night, in cases of severe insomnia the dose can be increased up to 15 mg. In elderly patients, as well as abnormal liver function is used 3.75 mg.
Zopiclone side effects
Digestive system: a feeling of bitter or metallic taste in the mouth, dry mouth, nausea, and vomiting.
CNS: dizziness, headache, drowsiness, confusion, anterograde amnesia, hallucinations, nightmares.
Dermatologic reactions: skin rash.
Severe respiratory failure, pregnancy, lactation (breastfeeding), children and teens under 15 years old, hypersensitivity to zopiclone.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Zopiclone is contraindicated during pregnancy (especially in I and III trimester) and lactation (breastfeeding). If a woman uses zopiclone in III trimester of pregnancy there are possible violations of the nervous system in the newborn, the emergence of withdrawal syndrome. If the woman is prescribed by a doctor took zopiclone immediately prior to labor and delivery, it needs a constant medical surveillance for the newborn. At the time of treatment it should be stoped breastfeeding (zopiclone penetrates into breast milk).
With caution use in patients with severe liver failure.
Risk of drug dependence is minimal if the duration of zopiclone did not exceed 4 weeks. However, the potential danger of zopiclone dependence to exist.
During the period of treatment patients should to exclude the use of alcohol.
On the next day after taking the drug it should be cautious to drive and operate machinery.
Zopiclone drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Zopiclone with trimipramine reduces the concentration of trimipramine in plasma and its effect.
Zopiclone increases the influence of CNS depressants (including ethanol).
Zopiclone in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: CNS depression of varying severity (from drowsiness to loss of consciousness).
Treatment: gastric lavage, taking activated charcoal, if necessary - symptomatic therapy. As a specific antidote used benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (in hospital). Hemodialysis is ineffective.