Product Name: Oxazepam
Common Brand Names: Aleram
Pharmaceutical Category: Antidepressants / Anti Anxiety
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There is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient oxazepam:
Oxazepam is an anxiolytic drug (tranquilizer) from the group of benzodiazepine derivatives. This medication has anxiolytic and sedative effects. This drug possesses anticonvulsant and central muscle relaxant activity. The mechanism of action is associated with increased GABA-ergic processes in the brain. Mainly affects the activating reticular formation of the brain reducing the perception of impulses from sensory receptors in the limbic system and reducing the emotional coloring.
After oral administration Oxazepam is absorbed slowly and fully. The plasma protein binding is 97%. Cmax achieved through 1-4 hours and is 450 ng / ml after taking a dose of 30 mg. This medicine penetrates the blood-brain barrier, placenta, into breast milk. Oxazepam metabolized in the liver to form glucuronides that have no pharmacological activity. T1/2 is 5-15 h. This drug is excreted by the kidneys and feces. Css observed after 1-3 days of treatment. Accumulation in the re-appointment is minimum (applies to benzodiazepines with short and medium-sized T1/2), excretion after cessation of treatment is fast.
Why is Oxazepam prescribed?
Neurosis, sleep disorders, psycho-vegetative disorders. Autonomic dysfunction in women associated with disorders of the menstrual cycle or menopause, pronounced PMS. Reactive depression (as part of combination therapy).
Dosage and administration
Dosing regimen of Oxazepam is individual depending on the evidence and the development of a therapeutic effect. The daily dose ranges from 10 to 120 mg. The duration of treatment is determined individually. The therapy should been ended gradually.
Oxazepam side effects, adverse reactions
CNS and peripheral nervous system: at the beginning of treatment (particularly in older patients) may be drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue, impaired concentration, ataxia, unsteady gait and poor motor coordination, weakness, numbing of emotions, slowing of mental and motor responses; dystonic extrapyramidal reactions (involuntary movements, including eye), weakness, muscle weakness during the day, dysarthria (slurring of speech), mental confusion; extremely rare - a paradoxical reaction (aggressive flare, psychomotor agitation, fear, suicidal tendencies, muscle spasms, hallucinations, acute agitation, irritability, anxiety, insomnia).
Hematopoietic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis (chills, pyrexia, sore throat, unusual tiredness or weakness), anemia, and thrombocytopenia.
Digestive system: dry mouth or excessive salivation, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, diarrhea, liver damage, elevated liver transaminases and alkaline phosphatase, jaundice.
Urinary system: urinary incontinence, urinary retention, impaired renal function.
Sexual system: increased or decreased libido, dysmenorrhea.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching.
Effect on the fetus: teratogenicity, CNS depression, respiratory failure and suppression of the sucking reflex in infants whose mothers used the drug.
Other: addiction, drug addiction, decreased blood pressure; rarely - respiratory center depression, impaired vision (diplopia), bulimia, weight loss, tachycardia, anterograde amnesia.
With a sharp decrease in dose or stopped taking: the withdrawal syndrome (irritability, headache, anxiety, agitation, excitement, fear, nervousness, sleep disturbances, dysphoria, spasm of smooth muscles of internal organs and skeletal muscles, depersonalization, increased sweating, depression, nausea, vomiting, tremors, disorders of perception, including paresthesia, photophobia, tachycardia, seizures, hallucinations, rare - acute psychosis).
Coma, shock, acute alcohol intoxication with a weakening of vital functions, acute intoxication with drugs, providing a depressing effect on the CNS (narcotics, sleeping pills and psychotropic drugs), myasthenia gravis, angle-closure glaucoma (acute attack or predisposition), severe COPD (the progression of the degree of respiratory failure), acute respiratory failure, severe depression (suicidal tendencies may occur), pregnancy (especially the I trimester), lactation (breastfeeding), children under the age of 6 years, increased sensitivity to oxazepam.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Oxazepam causes toxic effects on the fetus and increases the risk of birth defects when used in the I trimester of pregnancy. Therapeutic doses in the later stages of pregnancy can cause neonatal CNS depression. The constant use during pregnancy can lead to physical dependence with the development of withdrawal syndrome in the newborn. Children especially at a younger age are very sensitive to the central nervous system depressing action of benzodiazepines. Taking of Application immediately before birth or during labor can cause neonatal respiratory depression, decreased muscle tone, hypotension, hypothermia and the syndrome of flaccid suckling newborn.
Any change in dosage should be under the supervision of a physician.
With careful use of the propensity to hypotension, with increased risk of developing drug dependence, elderly patients, in hepatic and / or renal failure, cerebral and spinal ataxia, hyperkinesis, and the inclination to abuse of psychotropic drugs, organic brain diseases, psychosis (possible paradoxical reactions), hypoproteinemia, sleep apnea (or suspected).
Oxazepam should not be used for a long time (several months) because of the possibility of drug dependence. In long-term treatment it is necessary to monitor liver function and status of the peripheral blood.
During the period of treatment should not drive vehicles and doing other potentially hazardous activities, increased attention and should not be drinking alcohol.
Oxazepam drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Oxazepam with:
oral contraceptives decreases the effectiveness of oxazepam.
moderately increased bioavailability of zidovudine and increase the incidence of headache.
phenytoin it appears the risk to reduce of oxazepam concentrations in blood plasma.
ethanol enhanced depressant effect on CNS.
Oxazepam in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: CNS depression of varying severity (from lethargy to coma) - drowsiness, confusion, lethargy, in more severe cases (especially in patients receiving other drugs depressing the central nervous system or alcohol) - ataxia, hypotension, hypnotic state, coma.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic therapy, monitor vital signs. In severe hypotension - the introduction of norepinephrine. The specific antidote is benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (introduction only in the hospital). Hemodialysis is ineffective.