Product Name: Nitrazepam
Generic Name: Nitrazepam
Common Brands: Mogadon
Pharmaceutical Categories: Antidepressants, Anti Anxiety
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Here is an additional general information about this medication active ingredient nitrazepam:
Nitrazepam is an hypnotic drug from benzodiazepines group. This medication has a marked sedative effect, anxiolytic, sedative, anticonvulsant and central muscle relaxant effect. The mechanism of action is associated with increased inhibitory effect of GABA in the CNS by increasing the sensitivity of the GABA-receptor mediator as a result of stimulation of benzodiazepine receptors. Nitrazepam increases the depth and duration of sleep. Sleep usually occurs in 20-40 minutes after ingestion and lasts for 6-8 hours. Moderately inhibits the phase of the quick sleep.
The plasma protein binding is more than 80%. Vd is 1.9 L / kg. T1/2 is an average of 26 hours. Nitrazepam is excreted mainly as metabolites.
Why is Nitrazepam prescribed?
Sleep disorders of various origins, somnambulism, premedication before surgery, encephalopathy, accompanied by epileptic (myoclonic) seizures.
Dosage and administration
The daily dose for adults is ranged from 2.5 mg to 25 mg; the multiplicity of usind is set individually. The daily dose for children is 0.6-1 mg.
Nitrazepam side effects, adverse reactions
CNS and peripheral nervous system: fatigue, impaired concentration, psychomotor retardation reactions, muscle weakness; rarely - headaches, ataxia, confusion, amnesia, depression, blurred vision, in predisposed patients may be worsening of suicidal thoughts, hallucinations.
Cardiovascular system: rarely - hypotension.
Digestive system: rarely - dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea.
Respiratory system: patients with obstructive pulmonary disease possible respiratory depression.
Reproductive system: changes in libido.
Allergic reactions: seldom - a skin rash, itching.
Acute respiratory failure, drug or alcohol dependence, myasthenia gravis, temporal lobe epilepsy, angle-closure glaucoma, acute intoxication with drugs, providing a depressing effect on the central nervous system or alcohol abuse, hypersensitivity to benzodiazepines.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
There was not conducted adequate and well-controlled studies safety of nitrazepam during pregnancy and lactation. Nitrazepam is contraindicated especially in I and III trimester of pregnancy.
If necessary nitrazepam using during lactation breastfeeding should be discontinued.
Nitrazepam should be used with caution in severe respiratory failure, obstructive pulmonary disease, ataxia, sleep apnea, marked hepatic dysfunction.
With prolonged use may develop drug dependence.
During the period of treatment avoid taking alcohol.
During the period of treatment patients should refrain from activities potentially hazardous activities that require increased attention and rapid psychomotor reactions.
Nitrazepam drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Nitrazepam with:
drugs providing a depressing effect on the CNS, with ethanol, ethanol containing drugs is enhanced inhibitory effect on the CNS.
anticonvulsant drugs may mutual enhancement of toxic effects.
nitrazepam potentiates the action of antihypertensive drugs.
estrogen containing oral contraceptives increases the concentration in blood plasma nitrazepam.
probenecid may interfere with the glucuronide binding of nitrazepam that leads to an increase in its concentration in plasma and by enhancing the therapeutic effect may develop excessive sedation.
rifampicin increased excretion from the body of nitrazepam
cimetidine increases the concentration of nitrazepama in blood plasma, which may be accompanied by increased sedation. It may be slow the hepatic metabolism of nitrazepam. This can lead to a lengthening of T1/2 of nitrazepam and for long-term use - an increase of its concentration in blood plasma.
Nitrazepam in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: CNS depression of varying severity - lethargy, weakness, severe drowsiness, deep sleep, confusion, decreased response to painful stimuli; in more severe cases - ataxia, areflexia, hypotension, respiratory depression and cardiac activity, coma.
Treatment: induction of vomiting or gastric lavage, activated charcoal technique, monitoring vital signs, symptomatic therapy, intravenous fluids, if necessary - mechanical ventilation. As a specific antidote used benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (in hospital).